Conditioning and connection of green areas from the surroundings of the Severo Ochoa Square to the Ensanche Park in Cartagena municipality
: The pilot action is the result of ingenious initiatives that mitigate the high temperatures in the hours of greater daily insolation to its inhabitants, favouring the infiltration of water in episodes of rain and the fixation of CO2 of the contamination through the vegetation. The creation of shaded spaces will be done with the introduction of well adapted native and allochthonous tree species, expanding tree-beds, introducing pergolas and pergolas with green roofs into the urban furniture, using the same climbing species, together with the construction of benches to rest the pedestrians. (lifeadapte, 2021).
Increased infiltration, water retention and flood protection
The use of natural solutions, avoiding the paving of green areas, notably favors the infiltration of water. The use of shrub species slows down surface runoff and the damage to the land they cause. This type of solution has been promoted in this project, mainly with areas of shrub species. Infiltration in the parking area, in the middle of the trees, is also favored.
Improved air quality
Yes, through plants reduction and absorption of pollutants. In this area we do not have specific sensors for pollutants in the air as we do in other areas of the city. But the contribution that the vegetal mass offers to the air quality conditions is undeniable, as if we have contrasted in other areas of the city.
Reduced drought risk, cooling effect, urban heat island mitigation
Yes, vegetation has a significant effect on Urban Heat Island mitigation. Land surface temperature greatly influence the urban landscape mosaic, including changing microclimate conditions and exacerbating the surface urban heat island phenomenon (Morabito et al; 2021). The increase in green areas adapted to pedestrian use can help to reduce the climate-related risks in the daily life of citizens. This pilot action seeks to reduce one or two degrees in the related areas, and change the way we derstand the concept of street by green corridor. (lifeadapte, 2021).
Biodiversity conservation or increased biodiversity
Yes, increased green areas would allow an increase of biodiversity.
Yes, the project connects urban habitats and provides urban ecological network.
Increased quality and quantity of green and blue infrastructures
Yes, through conditioning and connection of green areas from the surroundings of the Severo Ochoa Square to the Ensanche Park. It is intended a change in the design concept of parks and public squares, through the removal of hard pavements and introducing trees, vegetation, pergolas and pergolas with green roofing, upholstery pavements. (lifeadapte, 2021).
Yes, the project is an important part of ecological intervention adopted by Cartagena municipality which is crucial for the sustainable growth of an urban community, for the improvement of quality of life of residents and provide ecosystem services. It brings economic, social and environmental benefits such as the mitigation of climate change and heat island effect; regulatation of air quality by removing contaminants through filtration, decomposition and assimilation; improving noise abatement; increasing the attractiveness and beauty of urban landscape, reconnecting people with nature.
Improved aesthetic value
Yes, through the introduction of pergolas with green roofs into the urban environment (lifeadapte, 2021). In addition, aesthetic values provided to citizens through eco-aesthetics also help ensure the sustainability of of this project over the long term.
Creation of green jobs relating to the construction and maintenance of NBS
Increased access to green infrastructure
Increased social interaction and inclusion
Yes, attractive urban green infrastructure provides opportunities for social interaction and inclusion.
Increased willingness, participation, investment in NBS
Provision of health benefits
Yes, the project increases exposure to the natural environment, improves the environmental quality of life and provides opportunity for physical activity and active and pasive recreation. Opportunities for contact with nature offer stress reduction, which is linked to many aspects of physical and mental health ( EC DG ENV, 2014).
Education, knowledge exchange and learning
Drought and heat risk
Yes, climate change projections show more intense and frequent extreme heat events in Europe in the future, with a higher impact in the Iberian Peninsula and Mediterranean Regions (Pachauri et al., 2014; King, Karoly, 2017; Royé et al., 2020 ). Drought risk increases significantly in the Mediterranean region. Moreover, for this region the additional 0.5°C of warming from 1.5°C to 2°C leads to significantly drier mean conditions and a higher risk of consecutive drought years. (Lehner et al., 2017).
Loss of biodiversity
It partially corrects the loss of biodiversity associated with urban centers. Always taking into account the size of the pilot action.
Low availability of green infrastructure
Low aesthetic value
Yes, this project brings aesthetic value to the urban community.
Limited knowledge about biodiversity
Good health and well-being (SDG3)
Yes, this action targets to increase public health and well being by reducing exposure to direct sun and also decreasing temperature by providing more shaded areas .
Sustainable cities and communities (SDG11)
It can be said that this project, although it is a localised pilot, helps to make Cartagena a more sustainable city, as evidenced by the increased use of the greenery.
Climate action, resilience, mitigation and adaptation (SDG13)
Terrestrial biodiversity (SDG15)
This project helps in part to the recovery of biodiversity in urban environments due to the existence of native vegetation used in the garden areas, which even favor pollinators.
Lifeadapte (2021). Pilot action: Conditioning and connection of green areas from the surroundings of the Severo Ochoa Square to the Ensanche Park. Information obtained: 2021-01-27. Available at: lifeadaptate.eu/en/pilot-actions/#cartagena. Lehner, F., Coats, S., Stocker, T.F., Pendergrass, A.G., Sanderson, B.M., Raible, Ch.C., Smerdon, J.E. (2017). Projected drought risk in 1.5°C and 2°C warmer climates. Geophysical Research Letters. Retrieved from: https://doi.org/10.1002/2017GL074117.
Morabito, M., Crisci, A., Guerri, G., Messeri, A., Congedo, L., Munafò, M. (2021). Surface urban heat islands in Italian metropolitan cities: Tree cover and impervious surface influences. Science of The Total Environment 2021(751), 142334. Retrieved from: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.142334.
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Royé, D., Codesidod, R., Tobíase, A., Taracidob, M. (2020). Heat wave intensity and daily mortality in four of the largest cities of Spain. Environmental Research 182 (2020), 109027. Retrieved from: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2019.109027.