Increased infiltration, water retention and flood protection
Yes, trees are able to prevent potential local flooding by contributing to the reduction of storm water runoff. (Climate-ADAPT, 2019).
Improved air quality
Yes, the trees in Barcelona can remove more than 305 tons of air pollutants in a single year, providing an estimated value to society of 1.12 million Euros (numbers are for 2008). (Climate-ADAPT, 2019).
Reduced drought risk, cooling effect, urban heat island mitigation
Yes, through climate adaptation benefits. Trees alter the urban microclimate and mitigate the climatic conditions by creating a cooling effect through shade and transpiration. Additionally, the reflection of sunlight by the leaves lowers the temperature in pedestrian zones and the shade protects people from the sun’s rays, especially during the hot summer months. (Climate-AdDAPT, 2019).
Biodiversity conservation or increased biodiversity
Yes, trees conserve and boost urban biodiversity. (Climate-ADAPT, 2019).
Yes, the project enhances the ecological connectivity within the city through the developing of a number of urban green corridors. The green corridor of Passeig de Sant Joan is one of the first ones implemented, and it involved the planting of trees and shrubs and the installation of a permeable green pavement. (IUCN, 2019)
Increased quality and quantity of green and blue infrastructures
Yes, one of the main project objectives is to increase the quantity of the public open spaces for the citizens through the setting up of a network of trees and shrubs. (IUCN, 2019).
Yes, the green corridor of Passeig de Sant Joan connects to several urban green corridors in the city. (IUCN, 2019). Trees can improve the urban microclimate and mitigate climatic conditions by creating a cooling effect through shade and transpiration. In addition, the reflection of sunlight by the leaves lowers the temperature in pedestrian zones and the shade shelters people from the sun’s rays, especially during the hot summer months. Furthermore, trees prevent potential local flooding by contributing to the reduction of storm water runoff. Consequently, they can play a significant role in urban climate change adaptation. Trees can also supply several co-benefits. For instance, in a single year, the storage of carbon in the city’s trees adds up to 113.000 tons. (Climate-ADAPT, 2019).
Improved aesthetic value
Yes, trees also afford a more pleasant urban landscape. (Climate-ADAPT, 2019).
Increased access to green infrastructure
Increased social interaction and inclusion
Yes, trees and, more generally, plant cover, also can function as a place for socialisation or social gatherings, and as a location for taking a stroll or engaging in sports and leisure activities in the open air. The safeguarding of this green heritage is undertaken by the Barcelona City Council with the involvement of both public and private organisations and of the citizens themselves, through stakeholder participation and various volunteer activities. (Climate-ADAPT, 2019).
Increased willingness, participation, investment in NBS
Yes, the City of Barcelona, with its 'Green Infrastructure and Biodiversity Plan up to 2020' is implementing a range of actions to bring nature into the city. (IUCN, 2019).
Provision of health benefits
Yes, trees and, more generally, plant cover, also mitigate noise and air pollution and regulate damp. According to the Plan vision, trees are considered a fundamental part of the green infrastructure of Barcelona, a natural resource that enables the enjoyment of a healthier life in the city. Trees and shrubs retain and boost urban biodiversity, link people with nature and supply social and environmental services (e.g. in relation to health, habitability, landscape, etc.) to the current population as well as future generations. (Climate-ADAPT, 2019).
Low air quality
Yes, the effect of air pollutants emitted by urban activity, mainly vehicle traffic, must also be taken into account. (Climate-Adapt, 2019).
Drought and heat risk
Yes, Barcelona is particularly vulnerable to climate change. Its high population density also multiplies the local heat island effect, causing a range of health and environmental challenges. Main climate change challenges for Barcelona are related to temperature rise, a significant drop in precipitation and a rise in related extreme events such as droughts and heat waves. The high urban density can act as a driver worsening the heat island effect. Intense sunlight and high temperatures are aggravated by buildings reflecting sunlight instead of dissipating energy, due to the lack of evaporative surfaces, thus additionally heating up the atmosphere. (Climate-Adapt, 2019).
Loss of biodiversity
Yes, one of the main project objectives is to preserve and enhance the natural heritage of the city and prevent the loss of species and habitats (IUCN, 2019).
Low availability of green infrastructure
Yes, Barcelona has a relatively low ratio of green space to inhabitants (Climate-Adapt, 2019).
Low aesthetic value
Yes, the project's priority is to improve and enhance the urban natural capital.
Good health and well-being (SDG3)
Yes, urban greenery contributes significantly to human well-being.
Sustainable cities and communities (SDG11)
Climate action, resilience, mitigation and adaptation (SDG13)
IUCN. 2019. Nature based Solutions in Mediterranean cities. Rapid assessment report and compilation of urban interventions (2017‐2018). Malaga, Spain: IUCN. 117pp. Naturvation project. 2019. Urban green corridor Passeig de Sant Joan. Information obtained: 2020-09-17. Available at: https://naturvation.eu/.