: Getting the city ready for the hazards of climate change by supplying a consistent urban green infrastructure and ameliorating access to and use of natural spaces for the well‐being of citizens: • Planting of vegetation as a feature of all new constructions; • planting of vegetation in 100 additional hectares of facades and roofs in Paris, 1/3 of which may be used for the production of fruit and vegetables; • 30 hectares of new green spaces in Paris; • 20,000 additional trees in Paris; • 200 local areas to be planted as part of the Paris Biodiversity Plan: • Studying and defining the green and blue infrastructure framework approved by the Grenelle process; • Strengthening the green network and its function as an ecological corridor. (IUCN, 2019).
: 105 km²
: 2.14 milion in 2019 (Statista Research Department, 2020)
: City of Paris, Parks and Environment directorate
Reduced drought risk, cooling effect, urban heat island mitigation
Yes, one of the definite aims for 2020 is mitigate the urban heat island effect in Paris and and its suburbs and increase the comfort of Parisians in summer (IUCN, 2019). Plants increase moisture and cool the air through the phenomenon of evapotranspiration. The sheltering effect afforded by trees also stops buildings and streets from heating up. Hence vegetation can be a key asset for cooling down the city during the hot summer months, offsetting microclimates created by urban density. (EnergyCities, 2020).
Biodiversity conservation or increased biodiversity
Yes, one of the project goals is to identify and promote the type of plant species that can most effectively meet the dual challenge of providing refreshment and boosting urban biodiversity. (IUCN, 2019).
Yes, the project consolidates the green network and its function as an ecological corridor (IUCN, 2019).
Increased quality and quantity of green and blue infrastructures
Yes, the project boosts access to and use of green spaces (IUCN, 2019).
Starting in 2007, the Greening Program of Paris is one of the elements in the strategic adaptation of the Climate and Energy action plans for Paris, getting the city ready to deal with climate change and resource depletion . It encompasses all areas of vegetation in the city, making up nearly one fourth of the Paris area, through repeated and interconnected green touches, in order to raise the quality of life and increase the attractiveness of Paris. (IUCN, 2019).
Improved aesthetic value
Yes, urban green areas are seen as to provide aesthetic environments for recreation and leisure as well as for ecological services
Increased access to green infrastructure
Increased willingness, participation, investment in NBS
Planting in Paris may take a number of forms: public parks and gardens (over 500), wooded areas, 20 cemeteries with trees, shared gardens (almost 90), private gardens, tree-lined boulevards and streets with grassy areas, a green walkway set up on the “petite ceinture” former railway line, rain gardens, vegetation integrated into buildings, and even bus shelters greened with plants. The greening programme covers all these areas in the city which make up nearly a quarter of the Paris territory, through repeated and interconnected additions directed towards improving the quality of life and increasing the attractiveness of Paris. In connection with the Biodiversity Plan, the City set itself the target of setting up seven hectares of planted roofs across the whole of the Parisian territory by 2020. This objective is backed by a seven-year (2014-2020) programme which foresees the setting up of 100 new hectares of planted facades and roofs and the collaborative development of urban agriculture. (EnergyCities, 2020).
Provision of health benefits
Yes, the greening of public spaces and buildings offers improved comfort for Parisians in summer, in a context where heatwaves are becoming the norm. (EnergyCities, 2020).
Drought and heat risk
During the heatwaves of 2003, the night-time temperature in central Paris rose to 8°C above temperature readings in the rest of the Île-de-France region. (EnergyCities, 2020. ).
Low aesthetic value
Yes, due to the continuing urbanisation of Paris.
Good health and well-being (SDG3)
Sustainable cities and communities (SDG11)
Yes, the programme aims to enhance the quality of life and increase the impact of urban ecological services, and contributes to intra- and intergenerational socio-ecological justice for a sustainable Paris. (EnergyCities, 2020).
Climate action, resilience, mitigation and adaptation (SDG13)
Yes, the Paris greening programme has been one of the emphases of the adaptation strategy of the Paris Climate Plan which aims to prepare the city for climate changes. One of the objectives is to reduce urban heat island effects within Paris and its inner suburbs. (EnergyCities, 2020).
Terrestrial biodiversity (SDG15)
Yes, by planting 20,000 additional trees and 30 hectares of new green spaces in Paris (IUCN, 2019).