Increased provisioning of ecosystem goods (e.g. Food, water, etc)
Yes, through the reuse treated grey water for irrigation and toilet flushing.
Increased infiltration, water retention and flood protection
Yes, it has been established that a green wall can be effectively used as an urban drainage system in order to reduce surface runoff (Lau, Mah, 2018).
Reduced drought risk, cooling effect, urban heat island mitigation
Covering walls with plants can significantly reduce the ambient temperature during hot summer months. Green walls not only shield grey surroundings from direct sunlight (50% is absorbed and 30% reflected), but ‘evapotranspiration’ (a combination of evaporation of water and release of water vapour) by plants also helps cool walls. (European Commision, 2013; Sempergreen, 2020).
Biodiversity conservation or increased biodiversity
Yes, the implemented green wall may provide a new habitat in the built environment.
Increased quality and quantity of green and blue infrastructures
Yes, the green wall can be a valuable element of green infrastructure in urban settlements.
Yes, through reuse of treated grey water for gardening and enhancing natural capital in the urban settlements. A green wall also lowers the incidence of heat stress associated with heatwaves. Areas with more greenery suffer less from aggression, violence and vandalism. The green wall can contribute to air purification because the plants filter particulate matter from the air and convert CO2 into oxygen (Sempergreen, 2020).
Improved aesthetic value
Increased access to green infrastructure
Provision of health benefits
Living and working in a green environment may have a positive effect on human well-being. Greenery offers relaxation and reduces stress. (Sempergreen, 2020).
Drought and heat risk
Investigations of mutation in the compound occurrence of drought and heat conditions have identified many hotspots of compound drought and extreme heat conditions in Europe. These include, among others, France, Benelux countries, Italy and Balkan Peninsula. Trend detection has shown that these areas were characterized by a rising trend in the compound occurrence of drought and heat extremes. (Bezak, Mikos, 2020).
Low aesthetic value
Good health and well-being (SDG3)
Clean water and sanitation (SDG6)
Sustainable cities and communities (SDG11)
Yes, the reuse of treated grey water for toilet flushing and irrigation aims to save about 300/400 litres of drinking water per day.
Climate action, resilience, mitigation and adaptation (SDG13)
Terrestrial biodiversity (SDG15)
: Bezak, N., Mikos, M. (2020). Changes in the Compound Drought and Extreme Heat Occurrence in the 1961–2018 Period at the European Scale. Water 2020, 12, 3543. Retrieved from: https://doi.org/10.3390/w12123543.