Increased provisioning of ecosystem goods (e.g. Food, water, etc)
Yes, whey waste is converted into energy and the effluent of the CW system is discharged back into the Mammella torrent.
Biodiversity conservation or increased biodiversity
The CW may provide a new wildlife habitat and exploit the ecological benefits of the CWs apart from their function as a treatment facility (Knight, 1997; Stefanakis, 2019). The main characteristics of the CW (i.e., presence of water and vegetation) make it suitable for the creation of a new ecological habitat, by attracting wildlife species, especially birds, and establishing a green area (Stefanakis, 2019).
Increased quality and quantity of green and blue infrastructures
As natural treatment technology, CWs can be categorised as sustainable systems, fulfilling sustainability criteria such as effective sanitation, contribution to public health and hygiene aspects, environmental protection and safeguarding of natural resources. (Stefanakis, 2015). The number of treated person equivalent is 1500 PE. (IRIDRA, 2021).
Improved aesthetic value
Education, knowledge exchange and learning
Yes, educational activities are also included among the farm's assets.
Low provisioning of ecosystem goods (e.g. Water, food)
Drought and heat risk
Investigations of mutation in the compound occurrence of drought and heat conditions have identified many hotspots of compound drought and extreme heat conditions in Europe. These include, among others, France, Benelux countries, Italy and Balkan Peninsula. Trend detection has shown that these areas were characterized by a rising trend in the compound occurrence of drought and heat extremes. (Bezak, Mikos, 2020).
Low aesthetic value
Food security (SDG2) Zero Hunger
Good health and well-being (SDG3)
Clean water and sanitation (SDG6)
Sustainable cities and communities (SDG11)
Climate action, resilience, mitigation and adaptation (SDG13)
Yes, the main characteristic of CWs is very low greenhouse gas emission (Stefanakis et al., 2014; Stefanakis, 2015).