This site uses cookies to deliver its services and analyse traffic. By using this site, you agree to its use of cookies.


Nature-based solutions for wastewater treatment in Relais Certosa Hotel

: Implemented nature-based solutions (NbS) as green infrastructure through CWs with the horizontal subsurface flow (HF) and vertical subsurface flow (VF) for wastewater treatment (IRIDRA, 2021).
: Italy
: Florence
: 102 km²
: 382.258 (City Population, 2017)
: 2001
: 3 years
: Completed
: Yes
: Hotel Relais Certosa
: 43.7284
: 11.2231
Increased provisioning of ecosystem goods (e.g. Food, water, etc)
Yes, through treated wastewater for irrigation.
Biodiversity conservation or increased biodiversity
Yes, CWs can also provide a habitat for wildlife.
Increased quality and quantity of green and blue infrastructures
Sustainable urbanisation
As natural treatment technology, CWs can be characterized as sustainable systems, fulfilling sustainability criteria such as effective sanitation, contribution to public health and hygiene aspects, environmental protection and protection of natural resources. (Stefanakis, 2015). The number of treated person equivalent is 140 PE. (IRIDRA, 2021).
Improved aesthetic value
Yes, the CW has also served aesthetic purposes, and have an added value as part of the hotel's design. (IRIDRA, 2021).
Drought and heat risk
Under a high emissions scenario, mean annual temperature is expected to climb by about 5.1°C on average from 1990 to 2100, and the longest dry spell is projected to increase from a mean of about 30 days to just under 45 days, with continuing large year-to-year variability. If global emissions go down at a rapid rate, the temperature rise will be limited to around 1.6°C, but there will be hardly any change in the length of dry spells. Heat effects are larger in bigger urban areas (Turin, Milan, Bologna, Florence, Rome, Naples). (World Health Organization, 2018).
Low aesthetic value
Good health and well-being (SDG3)
Clean water and sanitation (SDG6)
Sustainable cities and communities (SDG11)
Climate action, resilience, mitigation and adaptation (SDG13)
Yes, the main characteristic of CWs are very low greenhouse gas emissions (Stefanakis et al., 2014; Stefanakis, 2015).
Terrestrial biodiversity (SDG15)
: CityPopulation (2011). Firenze. Information obtained: 2021-02-15. Available at:

IRIDRA (2021). Nature-based solutions - Sustainable water management. Information obtained: 2021-02-16. Available at:

Stefanakis, A. I., Akratos, C. S., & Tsihrintzis, V. A. (2014). Vertical Flow Constructed Wetlands: Eco-engineering Systems for Wastewater and Sludge Treatment (1st ed.). Amsterdam, The Netherlands: Elsevier Publishing. 378 pp. ISBN 978-0-12-404612-2. Retrieved from:

Stefanakis. A. I. (2015). Constructed Wetlands: Description and Benefits of an Eco-Tech Water Treatment System (Chapter 12). In Impact of Water Pollution on Human Health and Environmental Sustainability (Eds: E. McKeown, G. Bugyi ). 1st Edition. Publisher: IGI Global. Retrieved from:

Stefanakis. A. I. (2019). The Role of Constructed Wetlands as Green Infrastructure for Sustainable Urban Water Management. Sustainability 2019, 11, 6981. Tsihrintzis, V.A.; Hamid, R. (1997). Modelling and management of urban stormwater runoff quality: A review. Water Resour. Manag. 1997, 11, 137–164. World Health Organization (2018). Climate and health country profile: Italy. Information obtained: 2021-02-23. Available at:;jsessionid=095D81E3541354A4F8564DCBF65008AE?sequence=1.