Increased provisioning of ecosystem goods (e.g. Food, water, etc)
Yes, through treated wastewater for irrigation.
Biodiversity conservation or increased biodiversity
Yes, CWs can also provide a habitat for wildlife.
Increased quality and quantity of green and blue infrastructures
As natural treatment technology, CWs can be characterized as sustainable systems, fulfilling sustainability criteria such as effective sanitation, contribution to public health and hygiene aspects, environmental protection and protection of natural resources. (Stefanakis, 2015). The number of treated person equivalent is 140 PE. (IRIDRA, 2021).
Improved aesthetic value
Yes, the CW has also served aesthetic purposes, and have an added value as part of the hotel's design. (IRIDRA, 2021).
Drought and heat risk
Under a high emissions scenario, mean annual temperature is expected to climb by about 5.1°C on average from 1990 to 2100, and the longest dry spell is projected to increase from a mean of about 30 days to just under 45 days, with continuing large year-to-year variability. If global emissions go down at a rapid rate, the temperature rise will be limited to around 1.6°C, but there will be hardly any change in the length of dry spells. Heat effects are larger in bigger urban areas (Turin, Milan, Bologna, Florence, Rome, Naples). (World Health Organization, 2018).
Low aesthetic value
Good health and well-being (SDG3)
Clean water and sanitation (SDG6)
Sustainable cities and communities (SDG11)
Climate action, resilience, mitigation and adaptation (SDG13)
Yes, the main characteristic of CWs are very low greenhouse gas emissions (Stefanakis et al., 2014; Stefanakis, 2015).