Increased provisioning of ecosystem goods (e.g. Food, water, etc)
Yes, through treated water for irrigation and toilet flushing.
Increased infiltration, water retention and flood protection
The constructed wetland system (CW) harbours an important value in terms of flood and stormwater control by receiving the runoff during storm and flood events (Tsihrintzis, Hamid, 1997; Stefanakis, 2019). Its implementation boosts stormwater storage capacity and infiltration volumes, while decreasing the amount of water reaching the sewer system and eventually the treatment plants. The CW may contribute considerably to the integrated urban water management and also provide the ability to recycle the stored water volume within the urban hydrologic cycle. (Sundaravadivel, Vigneswaran, 2001; Shutes, Revitt, Scholes, 2010; Stefanakis, 2019). A rain garden has also been created, with the aim of managing and treating water from rainfall events. Rain gardens are a kind of bioretention system for storm runoff where such runoff is temporarily retained and filtered through soil as well as through plant take-up of water and nutrients. (Robinson et al., 2019).
Biodiversity conservation or increased biodiversity
The CW may provide a new wildlife habitat and exploit the ecological benefits of the CWs apart from their function as a treatment facility (Knight, 1997; Stefanakis, 2019). The main characteristics of the CW (i.e., presence of water and vegetation) make its suitable for the creation of a new ecological habitat, by attracting wildlife species, especially birds, and establishing a green area (Stefanakis, 2019). Increased biodiversity can be an important added value of the CW and rain garden. (IRIDRA, 2021).
Increased quality and quantity of green and blue infrastructures
Yes, through the creation of a rain garden and CW in the residential area. (IRIDRA, 2021).
Yes, through grey water reuse. It allows for NbS implementation for the treatment and reuse of grey water, to provide a source of treated water to be exploited both for inside (toilet flush tank filling) and outside (irrigation) uses in created rain garden and constructed wetland, thus decreasing the withdrawal of groundwater. Treated person equivalent: 280 PE. (IRIDRA, 2021).
Improved aesthetic value
Yes, the CW and rain garden in urban settings have also served aesthetic purposes, and have an added value in the residential area design. (IRIDRA, 2021).
Drought and heat risk
Investigations of mutation in the compound occurrence of drought and heat conditions have identified many hotspots of compound drought and extreme heat conditions in Europe. These include, among others, France, Benelux countries, Italy and Balkan Peninsula. Trend detection has shown that these areas were characterized by a rising trend in the compound occurrence of drought and heat extremes. (Bezak, Mikos, 2020).
Low aesthetic value
Good health and well-being (SDG3)
Clean water and sanitation (SDG6)
Sustainable cities and communities (SDG11)
Climate action, resilience, mitigation and adaptation (SDG13)
Yes, the installation of water saving devices, the reuse of treated grey water for toilet flushing, rain water harvesting and reuse for irrigation contribute to reduce the withdrawal of groundwater and protect the water resource.
Terrestrial biodiversity (SDG15)
: Bezak, N., Mikos, M. (2020). Changes in the Compound Drought and Extreme Heat Occurrence in the 1961–2018 Period at the European Scale. Water 2020, 12, 3543. Retrieved from: https://doi.org/10.3390/w12123543.
Robinson, Y., Schulte-Herbrüggen, H., Mácsik, J., Andersson, J. (2019). Raingardens for stormwater management. Report. Trafikverket : Borlänge, Sweden. 62pp. ISBN 978-91-7725-551-2.
Shutes, B.; Revitt, M.; Scholes, L. (2010). Constructed Wetlands for Flood Prevention and Water Reuse. In Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Wetland Systems for Water Pollution Control, Venice, Italy, 3–6 October 2010.
Stefanakis. A. I. (2019). The Role of Constructed Wetlands as Green Infrastructure for Sustainable Urban Water Management. Sustainability 2019, 11, 6981.
Sundaravadivel, M.; Vigneswaran, S. (2001). Constructed wetlands for wastewater treatment. Crit. Rev. Enviorn. Sci. Technol. 2001, 31, 351–409. Retrieved from: https://doi.org/10.1080/20016491089253.
Tsihrintzis, V.A.; Hamid, R. (1997). Modelling and management of urban stormwater runoff quality: A review. Water Resour. Manag. 1997, 11, 137–164.