: A total of 1038 shrubs and trees have been planted throughout the Island, and activities have been organised to help combat the spread of invasive alien species, and Educational activities were held around the Islands, including visits to schools to educate children on related environmental issues. Seeds of indigenous flora are being collected in order to assemble a gene bank, and all extra seeds distributed free of charge to members. A nursery has been set up containing more than 1,000 saplings spanning over 30 species, as well as an apiary on a specially chosen site. (The Grow 10 Trees Project, (s.a.).
Yes, tree and woodland cover was associated with air quality improvement ecosystem services (Balzan et al., 2018).
Reduced drought risk, cooling effect, urban heat island mitigation
Yes, trees and plants provide shade and reduce the urban heat island effect.
Biodiversity conservation or increased biodiversity
Yes, through the eradication of invasive alien species and planting of 1038 shrubs and trees have been planted throughout the Island (The Grow 10 Trees Project, s.a.).
Increased social interaction and inclusion
Yes, G10T has been created for pro-active citizens and has collaborated with scout groups, elderly people, schools, Local Councils, Central Government or other NGOs within a number of initiatives and afforestation projects within the Maltese Archipelago. (The Grow 10 Trees Project, (s.a.).
Increased willingness, participation, investment in NBS
Yes, the G10T project has brought volunteers and different members of the public together to plant trees around the Maltese Islands
Education, knowledge exchange and learning
Since its inception in May 2017, G10T has carried out a number of educational initiatives (visiting schools and participating in educational programmes (The Grow 10 Trees Project, (s.a.)
Low air quality
National data indicates exceedances of the EU limit values have been observed for both ozone and particulate matter (PM10). PM10 exceedences are attributed to the combined effect of human caused (traffic congestion and to a minor extent power generation) and environmental factors (e.g. dust from the Sahara). Ozone is a transboundary pollutant arriving in Malta from Europe. The concentration of Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2) higher in traffic congested areas and may pose a significant problem in dense urban areas (ERA, 2018b).
Drought and heat risk
The Mediterranean Region is considered as a "hot-spot" of climate change, having been identified in global climate scenarios as one of the most responsive regions to climate change (Lionello and Scarascia, 2018). There is a consensus in scientific literature that average temperatures will rise across most of the Mediterranean Region, and that precipitation will decrease (Ulbrich et al. 2013; Lionello and Scarascia, 2018). Observed annual mean temperatures in the Mediterranean Region are now 1.4 °C higher than the average late-nineteenth-century levels particularly during the summer months (Cramer et al., 2018).
Loss of biodiversity
Yes, whilst improvements have been recorded for several species and habitats, Malta’s biodiversity continues to experience various pressures and threats (ERA, 2018d), including land development, invasive species, over-exploitation of species and climate change. (Malta Voluntary National Review on the implementation of the 2030 Agenda, 2018).
Low availability of green infrastructure
Yes, because of the lack of green areas and open spaces due to urban expansion and the growing number of people living in urban areas (ERA, 2018d). Densely populated urban areas were characterised by a lower availability of green infrastructure (Balzan et al. 2018).
Limited knowledge about biodiversity
The Malta National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan (NBSAP) reports that the results of the Eurobarometer Surveys on Attitudes of Europeans towards Biodiversity in 2007 and 2010 indicate that 14.4% and 18% respectively of Maltese respondents had heard of the term “biodiversity” and knew what it meant. A survey commissioned by MEPA in 2011 indicates that out of the 500 persons interviewed, 24.6% of Maltese respondents heard of the term “biodiversity” and knew what it meant. In general there is a need to continue enhancing biodiversity awareness and gain more knowledge on the meaning of ‘biodiversity’. (ERA, 2018d).
: Balzan, M. V., Caruana, J., Zammit, A. 2018. Assessing the capacity and flow of ecosystem services in multifunctional landscapes : Evidence of a rural-urban gradient in a Mediterranean small island state. Land Use Policy, 75, 711–725. Retrieved from: doi:10.1016/j.landusepol.2017.08.025.
Cramer, W., Guiot, J., Fader, M., Garrabou, J., Gattuso, J.-P., Iglesias, A., Lange, M.A., Lionello , P., Llasat , M.C., Paz, S., Peñuelas, J., Snoussi, M., Toreti , A., Tsimplis, M.N., Xoplaki, E. 2018. Climate change and interconnected risks to sustainable development in the Mediterranean. Nature Climate Change. doi:10.1038/s41558-018-0299-2.
Ulbrich U, Xoplaki E, Dobricic S, García-Herrera R, Lionello P, Adani M, Baldi M, Barriopedro D, Coccimiglio P, Dalu G, Efthymiadis D, Gaetani M, Galati MB, Gimeno L, Goodess CM, Jones PD, Kuglitsch FG, Leckebusch GC, Luterbacher J, Marcos-Moreno M, Mariotti A, Nieto R, Nissen KM, Pettenuzzo D, Pinardi N, Pino C, Shaw AGP, Sousa P, Toreti A, Trigo RM, Tsimplis M. 2013. Past and current climate changes in the Mediterranean region. In: Navarra A, Tubiana L (eds) Regional Assessment of Climate Change in the Mediterranean. Springer, Dordrecht, pp 9–52. doi:10.1007/978-94-007-5781-3_2.